Cyclic nucleotide second messengers (cAMP and cGMP) play a central role in signal transduction and regulation of physiologic responses. Their intracellular levels are controlled by the complex superfamily of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes.
Cyclic nucleotide-regulated signal transduction can be initiated through several mechanisms, i.e., by cyclic nucleotide-induced activation of cAMP- and cGMP-protein kinases (PKA and PKG, respectively), with subsequent phosphorylation and regulation of downstream effectors, or by binding to and activation of specific cyclic nucleotide binding proteins which directly mediate cyclic nucleotide.
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a super-family of enzymes that play a major role in cell signaling by hydrolyzing two cyclic nucleotide second messengers, cAMP and cGMP.
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) catalyse the hydrolysis of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, thereby regulating the intracellular concentrations of these cyclic nucleotides, their signalling pathways and, consequently, myriad biological responses in health and disease.
Although cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) were described soon after the discovery of cAMP, their complexity and functions in signaling is only recently beginning to become fully realized. We now know that at least 100 different PDE proteins degrade cAMP and cGMP in eukaryotes.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The cyclic portion refers to the two single bonds between the phosphate group and the ribose A cyclic nucleotide (cNMP) is a single- phosphate nucleotide with a cyclic bond arrangement between the sugar and phosphate groups.
The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases comprise a group of enzymes that degrade the phosphodiester bond in the second messenger molecules cAMP and cGMP. They regulate the localization, duration, and amplitude of cyclic nucleotide signaling within subcellular domains.
Evolutionary conservation of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases. Recent in silico analysis revealed the presence of Class III cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases in bacteria, archae and eukaryotes. During the course of investigations in Prof. Sandhya S. Visweswariah’s laboratory, it was discovered that a protein in Mycobacteria was present.
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) degrade the second messengers cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), thereby regulating multiple aspects of cardiac and vascular muscle functions.
Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases hydrolyze cAMP and cGMP, thus reducing their concentrations within the cavernosal smooth muscle.
The Gordon Research Seminar on Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases is a unique forum for graduate students, post-docs, and other scientists with comparable levels of experience and education to present and exchange new data and cutting edge ideas.
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The 2018 Gordon Research Conference on Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) will focus on efforts to develop the therapeutic potential of phosphodiesterase modulators while also highlighting new biology relevant to the PDEs. As the sole means for terminating the intracellular signals carried by ubiquitous second messengers cAMP and cGMP.
At least seven different gene families of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase are currently known to exist in mammalian tissues. Most families contain several distinct genes, and many of these genes are expressed in different tissues as functionally unique alternative splice variants.
Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases in Health and Disease provides an integrated volume covering PDE biology from genes to organisms. It examines phosphodiesterases as pharmacological targets as well as the development of specific PDE inhibitors as therapeutic agents.
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) comprise a family of enzymes (PDE1-PDE11) which hydrolyse cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP to their biologically inactive 5' derivatives. Cyclic AMP is an important physiological amplifier of glucose-induced insulin secretion. As PDEs are the only known mechanism for inactivating cyclic nucleotides, it is.
Cyclic nucleotides and the enzymes responsible for their hydrolysis, PDEs, were identified almost simultaneously more than 40 years ago .The complexity of the PDE superfamily of enzymes was appreciated soon after their discovery, initially by biochemical and pharmacological observations and, more recently, by taking advantage of the power of molecular biology 7, 8.
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) comprise a family of enzymes (PDE1-PDE11) which hydrolyse cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP to their biologically inactive 5' derivatives. Cyclic AMP is an important physiological amplifier of glucose-induced insulin secretion. As PDEs are the only known mechanism for inactivating cyclic nucleotides, it is important to characterise the PDEs present in the.
Another set of preliminary experiments was designed to evaluate whether cyclic nucleotide crosstalk might occur through direct cAMP inhibition of cGMP hydrolysis, as suggested by recent literature (Wright et al., 1994).In these studies, we examined whether increases in cAMP could promote increases in the levels of cGMP and whether that response, if present, occurs through inhibition of the.